Irrigation essentially means the watering of land to make it ready for agricultural purposes. An irrigation system is the supplying of water via artificial canals and channels to growing plants and crops in a field.
Water is vital for the growth of plants. There can be no plants or crops if they do not have access to water in some form. It is, therefore, crucial to supply water to crops and plants, periodically and as per their requirement. So irrigation is this periodic and appropriate supply of water to plants. The water for this irrigation comes from various sources such as wells, ponds, rivers, dams, reservoirs, rainfall etc.
Irrigation is necessary for agriculture and farming due to the following reasons:
- Plants absorb minerals and nutrients from the soil via their roots. These minerals are dissolved in the water present in the soil. Then the water transports these nutrients to all parts of the plant, enabling growth and photosynthesis.
- Irrigation provides the moisture that is crucial during the germination phase of the plant’s life cycle.
- Irrigation also makes the soil more fertile (by adding moisture to it) and easier to plough.
- Proper irrigation also increases yield from the farm.