Monoculture farming is an agricultural method that involves planting one species of crop on the same piece of land repeatedly. Due to its implementation, farmers can yield large harvests with minimum utilization of resources. The ritual of growing the same crop for many successive years is known as crop monoculture.
For example, in monoculture farming, rice will be grown only with rice, particular type of potato will be cultivated only with that type. In monoculture, same crop is grown in the same land year after year. The main purpose behind monoculture farming is to maximize the output and minimize labor required. The benefits or advantages of monoculture farming are many:
- This approach to farming is fairly simple in nature, focusing all its needs and preference on one single crop species. Farmers just need to prepare the soil, and irrigate the land based on one crop. With monoculture, the field is in a better position to provide maximum output for a particular crop.
- Harvesting becomes fairly easy as the desired parts of the plant can be easily assembled without damaging other plants, which would be very difficult in polyculture. Chemical treatments is feasible, pests and diseases can be treated without having to worry about their side effects on other plants.
- It helps to keep down farming costs down, Farmers yield more output in less resources. Makes management pretty easy, machines and various methods can be utilized more efficiently and systematically.
- The knowledge of single plant species is sufficient for a good crop, farmers need not worry about other species, their cultivation methods, disease prevention, etc. Since the emphasis is on one plant, acquiring adequate knowledge or expertise is also easy.
- It is convenient for home gardeners who want to have a bigger harvest of a particular plant; suppose they want to save up on corn or barley to reduce their expenses. Growing a single large crop requires less investment.
- By grouping different plants together, farmers or gardeners have to cater to the fertilizer requirement of different plants. But with monoculture, they can easily use and apply one common fertilizer for all the plants.
- Planting same species of crop is much easier and faster process. Farmers can prepare garden beds and seed plants altogether. They just need to prepare garden beds for only one type of crop.
- Controlling pests and disease becomes relatively easy. Growers just need to use one pesticide for all the plants, because the diseases affecting them would be common.
- There is less competition for sunlight, nutrients, and space from other species. It helps to control other undesirable growth. It helps to maximize profits by planting crops which yields high gross margin.
- High gross margin crops are market-driven, and it’s easy to market such crops. Farmers particularly plants crop which can be consumed all year round, and also those which will thrive under all weather conditions.