External and Internal Factors in Seed Germination

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The seed germination process is very affected by several important factors, such as: water accumulation, oxygen, temperature, hormones, and sun light.

During seed germination process, water is needed crucially to activate special enzymes like alpha amylase, lipase, etc.

seed germination

Oxygen is needed in the food oxidizing process in cells to obtain energy in ATP that will then be used to power all cells’ activities, including ones that help plants’ growth and development.

Seed germination process needs optimum temperature condition for enzyme activities. Enzymes do not work properly in too high of a temperature due to denaturation  or in too low of a temperature either. Each enzyme has specific qualifications and functions in order to work optimally.

Lipase enzyme changes fat into fat acid and glycerol. Protease changes protein into structural and functional amino acids. Alpha amylase is the enzyme that breaks down amilum components (starch) into maltose. All these enzymes help out in the seed germination process and they are counted as internal factors.

Another important internal factor that affects seed germination process is growth hormone such as auxin and giberelin.

Auxin hormone is easily destroyed if exposed to too high light intensity so seed germination process happens faster in places with less light because this is the optimum condition for auxin hormone to work, although, plants often experience symptoms of etiolation that happens when plants grow too fast, such as: long roots, tall stems, and pale leaves due to lack of light. On the other hand, germinating seeds that are put in places with more light will have a more ideal growth because the light will prevent auxin hormone to work too well, too fast.

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