The traditional methods of irrigation often include pulley systems that are used to deliver water to soil, vegetation, flowers, or other forms of plant life. For many farmers who can’t afford expensive spray systems that are pre-timed for near-perfect results, lower-priced, traditional methods of irrigation, such as rahats, chain pumps, or lever systems (also known as Dhekli) can be very cost-effective. Here is a look at the most common methods of low-tech irrigation:
1. Pulley Systems
Pulleys are used to carry buckets of water where they are needed. Much like clotheslines that use pulleys to move clothes nearer or further away, pulley systems for irrigation are designed to cut down on the amount of manual labour needed to take care of gardens or farmland. Since pulleys automate part of the process, they are a cheap and useful way to carry water to plants and soil. Pulleys must be installed aboveground – they may be tied to stakes that are buried in the earth – strong rope will hold the pulley-based irrigation system together.
2. Rahat Irrigation
Rahat is an system of irrigation where it is followed by the villagers and by this method no water is wasted. It is a system like chain pump but instead of pump a bull is used. It is also known as Persian Wheel. This is an Urdu word and the method is also internationally known as the Persian wheel. It involves the use of two large wheels joined by a belt, on which a number of water pots collect water from underground. The wheel is traditionally turned by large animals such as oxen.
The first thing is the word rahat is pro. As rehat. An animal is used to rotate an axil. This axil is connected to gears,and those gears are connected with a circle object. The circular object is present near the water and another near the land surface. Chains with pots are connected with the chain. When the animal rotates the gears and the the circular object rotates and makes the chain with the pots rotate.
Lever irrigation method or rahat irrigation system, is a very economical and efficient method of lifting water from shallow wells to a height of 3.5 to 4.5m. The lift consists of a strong log laid across a fulcrum, a bucket attached to the long arm by means of a bamboo or a rope and a heavy weight attached to the other side of the log.
When the bucket is full one person gently releases the rope and the bucket comes up as the stone goes down. The bucket is emptied into the field channel and again lowered into the wells.
The Rahat system of irrigation was used in older times as a way to get water from a well by using oxen which was primarily used in the subcontinent.
Rahat is a slightly different irrigation system than others. Before being able to explain how it works, it is necessary to consider what irrigation is. Irrigation is the science of getting water to the land or soil by artificial means. In other words, it does not rely on rain or water that is already running under the ground. The water is necessary to aid in crop growth. This is why water needs to be consistent when it comes to the crops.
To have water spread out over the fields, it was necessary to form some type of water collection system. In some cases a moat has been used to collect water that was then taken directly to the fields via buckets and placed over the crops. In other forms wells were used to keep water contained to draw on it.
The Rahat System of irrigation requires a large well in which a wheel is used. The wheel is turned by oxen, buffalo or cows to get the water out of the well and then spread out over the crops.
Modern day irrigation lays pipes in the ground so that the water is spread over crops when a valve is turned and the water is allowed to flow. In the Rahat System, the oxen were used to make the water flow into buckets that could then be dumped evenly over the crops.
It was primarily used in the subcontinent in places like Africa and the Middle East. It is still used by some tribes, but for the most part other modern techniques are used.
3. Chain Pumps
These ancient Chinese irrigation systems use round metal discs and a long loop of metal chain to water soil and plants. Each metal disc runs through a pool of liquid, and each disc collects some water during this process. When the chain is pulled, the metal disc rises up to the top, and the water held inside pours out, hydrating the earth and flora. This low-cost method of traditional irrigation has been practised for centuries.
3. Lever Systems
Lever systems allow the user to control the speed of irrigation by choosing slow, medium or fast water flow; however, the lever system method is not as ancient, or inexpensive, as other methods mentioned here.
Traditional irrigation systems allow farmers or hobbyists to keep their plants and soil moist, which creates the right atmosphere for the growth of healthy plants.
4. Dhekli Systems
Dhekli is a type of irrigation where the farmers take a bucket from a well and pour it into pipes that lead to the end of the field and hence irrigate it. In the dekhli system, you use ropes and a container to get water from a well and use it to irrigate the land – it is a typical traditional system.
Farmers and ranchers have long used irrigation as a system to grow cropsthat need more rain than the area being farmed can provide. The dhekli irrigation system uses ropes and a container to get water from a well for irrigation purposes.
Irrigation is the process of applying water to the land. It is used to help grow all kinds of plants and agricultural crops as well as to maintain landscaping during periods when the normal rainfall of the region is not enough to sustain crops or grass. Irrigation has other uses such as the disposal of sewage, suppression of dust, along with applications in mining.
The practice of irrigation can be traced back thousands of years to the Egyptians, who would divert the Nile River with crude canals to water their crops. There is even archeological evidence that an Egyptian pharaoh used irrigation to store water in a natural lake. One of the ancient methods used that is still practiced today involves a network of vertical wells that are directly to their destination with gently sloping tunnels bored into the sides of mountains and steep hills to tap rainwater.
Today, many yards especially in the south have irrigation systems of one kind or another to keep the grass green. Most are simply sprinkler systems that attempt to spray water about the property in an even manner. Keeping grass growing in a yard prevents erosion of the top soil and makes a yard look much more appealing. Some modern irrigation systems include automatic non-electronic systems using buckets and ropes much like the dhekli irrigation system and using water condensed from humid air can be done in the countryside. Sources of irrigation water include springs and wells and may also include rivers, streams, and lakes. As long as cropsneed to be grown, methods of irrigation will always be needed to ensure the crops get enough water to grow.